Annotated Sources

1) Steward, W. (2008). HIV related stigma: adapting a theoretical framework for use in India. Social Science & Medicine, 67(8). Retrieved from:,%20W.T.&rft.aucorp=&

This article discusses the stigma that is associated with HIV in Southern India. There are different facets of HIV stigma—enacted, vicarious, felt normative, and internalized. This will be useful to me in the field since I am working with women who have HIV and will therefore have to overcome the barrier of the stigma attached to being HIV positive. By being able to better understand the stigma, I will be more prepared to deal with it while in the field.

2) Chandrasekaran, P. (2006). Containing HIV/AIDS in India: the unfinished agenda. The Lancet: Infectious Diseases, 6(8). Retrieved from:,%20P.&rft.aucorp=&

This article discusses the statistics of HIV (which areas have the highest rate of HIV, who is infected, what methods are being done, etc.). This article also discusses what is being done to treat HIV in India. I am using this study to find out more information about HIV in India and it has been very useful. Being able to understand the disease, who it is affecting, etc. is important because it can change in each location.

3) Brahme, R. (2006). Correlates and trend of HIV prevalence among female sex workers attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India. JAIDS journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(1). Retrieved from:,%20India%20%281993-2002%29&rft.aulast=Brahme&rft.jtitle=Journal%20of%20acquired%20immune%20deficiency%20syndromes&,%20Radhika&rft.epage=113&rft.spage=107&rft.auinit1=R&rft.object_id=110975506072271&rft_dat=urn:bx:10516082&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&sfx.previous_request_id=6922622

This article looks over the statistics found while researching HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in India. It was found that FSW have the highest rate of HIV in India; however, their clients are the bridge between the high rate of HIV among the FSW population, and the increasing population of those who are infected through other methods. This is very beneficial in my study of better understanding the HIV population. Although I won’t be specifically working with FSWs, they greatly influence the problem of HIV in India.

4) Basanti, M. (2004). An exploration of socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support among HIV-positive women in India. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS care, 15(3). Retrieved from:,%20spiritual,%20and%20family%20support%20among%20HIV-positive%20women%20in%20India&rft.jtitle=JANAC-JOURNAL%20OF%20THE%20ASSOCIATION%20OF%20NURSES%20IN%20AIDS%20CARE&rft.btitle=&rft.aulast=Majumdar&rft.auinit=&rft.auinit1=&rft.auinitm=&rft.ausuffix=&,%20B&rft.aucorp=&

This research was conducted by interviewing 10 HIV-positive women and the support available to them in India. It looks into how they contracted HIV, how long they have had it and what they are doing to cope with living with the disease. Viewing the support for those living with HIV can assist me in discovering if the methods used to treat HIV are working. Part of treating HIV is the support given, if there is no support then living with the disease can be even more damaging.

5) Mokgatle-Nthabu, M. (2008). Safe sex practice among HIV positive women on antiretroviral therapy: a HIV prevention challenge for poor resourced settings. International journal of Infectious Diseases, (12).

This article discusses the different prevention methods that are used for women and HIV. This study tried to find the impact of HIV-positive women’s sexual practices on HIV prevention. Since I am studying HIV prevention in women, this article was very insightful in determining if women are really following the prevention methods for HIV and why they are/are not.

6) Sharma, BR. (2005). Social etiology of violence against women in India. The Social Science Journal. (43)3. Retrieved from:,%20B.R.&rft.aucorp=&

This journal entry discusses the problem of women’s rights in India. Women have a history of being suppressed in India and this article discusses why and how it can be solved. The rapid HIV infection of women is generally due to social inequality and suppression of women. Since they both relate to each other it is important to understand how and why women are suppressed in India and if there is anything being done to help them.

7) Smita. J. (2005). Comparative acceptability study of the reality female condom and the version 4 of modified Reddy female condom in India. Contraception. (72)5. Retrieved from:,%20J.&rft.aucorp=&
This article discusses the acceptability and availability of the female condom in India. A method of HIV prevention is the use of protection; however, in many cultures the women are not able to determine if her male partner wears protection or not. An upcoming method to help women have more control over their protection is the female condom. Looking up the different methods possible (in addition to if it is acceptable in the culture) is important when thinking about what method will be most efficient and produce the best results.

8) Gupta, J. (2009). HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (107)2. Retrieved from:,%20J.&rft.aucorp=&

This study was a retrospective qualitative analysis that looked at women who were going to a clinic to receive help because they had been or were currently being trafficked. Although my research does not specifically focus on trafficking, it is still a problem that leads to monogamous women being infected with HIV. In order to prevent HIV infection, not only do we need to focus on prevention techniques; but we must also get rid of sex trafficking.

9) Vickerman, P. (2010). To what extent is the HIV epidemic in southern India driven by commercial sex? A modeling analysis. AIDS, 24(16). Retrieved from:,%20P&rft.aucorp=&

It has always been speculated that the correlation between Sex workers and their clients is a major reason why the HIV rate is so high in India. This study reviewed this belief to see if there was any evidence to support this claim. According to this study, all HIV infections in southern India can be accounted for by infections occurring between FSWs and their noncommercial partners. This is important when considering when trying to have HIV prevention interventions in southern India.

10) Mencher. J. (1974). The caste system upside down or the not-so-mysterious east. Current Anthropology (15)4. Retrieved from:

This article discusses the caste system in India and how it is used to suppress the lowest caste. Even though the caste system has changed since this article was written, it still has interesting viewpoints on how the system works and how it affects India.

11) Sharma, BR. (2005). Social etiology of violence against women in India. The Social Science Journal. (43)3
This article talks about the social discrimination against women in India. Women tend to be financially dependent on men and are not viewed as equals. As a result there is much abuse in relationships because women do not have a voice. This article is useful in learning the role of women in Indian society and why they are viewed as submissive. It also gives insights into the culture and the different gender roles, which is useful when considering the problem of women getting HIV from thier husbands or visa versa.

12) Chatterjee, N. (2006). Perceptions of risk and behavior change for prevention of HIV among married women in Mumbai, India. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 24(1).
 This article discusses how the HIV pandemic in India is increasing due to an increase in the number of women who are contracting HIV from thier spouses. There was a study done in southern India that found that most women do not know how to protect themselves from HIV infection and they trust their husbands, thus leading to an increase in HIV contamination. This article has a lot of important information regarding the statistics of HIV infection in India and how women view HIV infection. This is a very important study that had given me a firmer base in my literature knowledge of HIV perception in India.

13) Kalichman, Set. (2005). Positive prevention: reducing HIV transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS.
This book discusses the different methods of teaching prevention in order to reduce HIV transmission to those who are not HIV positive. This was very useful in my research of trying to find popular HIV prevention programs.
14) Misra, Rajiv. (2003). India Health Report.
This book looks at the health statistics of India. Not only does it give the statistics for HIV but other health disparities that many feel are just as wide spread as HIV.